translate and retell the text.
The Constitution of the USA
The Constitution of the USA was adopted after
the War of Independence on September 17, 1787. It lists the set of rules, laws
and regulations which provide the practical norms regulating the work of the
government. The document embodied the political theories of the Founding
Fathers, who represented the interests of a privileged class, as the great
majority of those who formulated the Constitution were men of property. The
main principle underlying the Constitution was as follows: private property is
the backbone of liberty. It was put forward by a rich plantation owner from
Virginia, James Madison, who is known to be the "Father of the
Constitution" precisely for this reason.
Constitution consists of the Preamble and seven articles. Twenty-seven
amendments have so far been added to its original text. The first 10 amendments,
known as the Bill of Rights, were added in a group in 1791, as a result of
growing popular demands. These amendments establish the individual rights and
freedoms to all people of the States, including freedom of speech, freedom of
the press, freedom of worship, the right to peaceful assembly, etc. Some of the
amendments are now rela lively unimportant, but the Fifth Amendment retains its
significance in the fight of the American people for their civil rights. It
provides that "no person shall deprived of life, liberty or property,
without due process of law", and no person "shall be compelled in any
criminal case to be a witness against himself".
the amendments adopted by the Congress become an integral part of the
Constitution. Mention should be made of some of them. The Thirteenth amendment
abolished slavery. The fourteenth and Fifteenth adopted in 1868 and 1870
defined citizenship and gave the vote to all male citizens, regardless of race,
colour or previous condition of servitude. The Nineteenth gave the vote to
women and was adopted in 1920. The Twenty-second amendment, adopted in 1951,
makes it impossible for any President to hold office for more than two terms.
The 26th amendment was adopted in 1971, it lowered the voting age to
Americans feel that of all freedoms
proclaimed in the Constitution there is only one freedom — freedom of enterprise. But freedom of enterprise does not at all expand
personal freedoms of all citizens. On the contrary, it limits them. Freedom of
enterpise in practice means freedom of the wealthy to profit at the expense of
the working man.
freedom of worship — свобода
previous condition of servitude —
попереднє перебування в
1. What three main branches is the federal
goverment of the US divided into?
2. Whose interests has the US Constitution
reflected from the very beginning?
3. What principle forms the basis of the
4. What freedoms are proclaimed by the
Constitution? Which of them has become the most important?
5. In what way has the original text of the
Constitution been changed?
3 Answer the questions.
does the executive power belong to in the USA?
long is the President elected for?
can be elected the President?
does the term of office of the President begin?
are the presidential elections held?
are the great powers exercised by the President?
does Vice-President tend to be the forgotten man of American politics?
is "the Cabinet"?
appoints Cabinet members?
10. How many members are there in the President's
11. What are the members of the "White House
Office" responsible for?
translate and retell the text.It's interesting to know
Inauguration always takes
place at noon on January 20. It is an official act of installing the President
of the United States in office. It is also the occasion for extensive
Inauguration is connected with some
traditions. Thus, the incumbent President is expected to give a dinner on the
eve in honour of the President-Elect and in the morning of the same day to
conduct him through the White House . By 12 o'clock on January 20 the
participants of the ceremony and guests take their places on a rostrum
especially erected in front of the Capitol. The central point of the ceremony
is the taking of an oath by the President and the delivery of his inaugural
speech. The wording of the President's oath is laid down in the Constitution
and runs as follows: "I do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute
the office of President of the United States and will to the best of my
ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United
States". The President's Inauguration speech is regarded as a declaration
of principles proclaimed by the new Administration.
The ceremony ends in a military parade. The
scope of the ceremony depends greatly on the tastes and wishes of the new
President. It is known that John Kennedy invited large groups of intellectuals
and prominent actors and singers.
translate and retell the text.
CONSTITUTION OF UKRAINE
by the Act of Ukraine's Independence of August 24, 1991, the Verkhovna Rada of
Ukraine on behalf of the Ukrainian people adopted the Constitution — the
Fundamental Law on June 28, 1996.
Constitution established the country's political system, assures rights,
freedoms and duties of citizens, and the basis of its laws.
asserts that Ukraine is a sovereign and independent, democratic, social, legal
state .It is a unitarian state with single citizenship.
is a republic. The people are the only source of power which is exercised
directly and through the bodies of state power and local self-government.
The land, mineral raw
materials, air space, water and other natural resources which are on the
territory of Ukraine are objects of the property right of Ukrainian people.
The state language in Ukraine is Ukrainian.
The state symbols of Ukraine are the State
Flag, the State Emblem and the State Anthem of Ukraine.
The State Flag is a
blue and a yellow banner made from two equal horizontal stripes . The main
element of the Great State Emblem of Ukraine is the Sign of the State of
Prince, Volodymyr the Great (the Small State Emblem of Ukraine). The State
Anthem of Ukraine is the national anthem with the music of M. Verbytsky.
The capital of Ukraine is Kyiv.
Constitution states that every person has the right to the free development of
his/her personality, and has obligations before society where free and full
development of the personality is assured. Citizens have equal Constitutional
rights and freedoms and are equal before the law. There are no privileges or
restrictions based upon face, colour of skin, political and other beliefs
gender, ethnic and social origin, properly, ownership, position, place of
residence, language, religion.
The articles of the Constitution guarantee
the rights of life, personal inviolability and the inviolability of dwelling,
noninteference in private and family life, free choice of residence, work,
rest, education, social security, housing, health protection, medical care and
medical insurance, legal assistance, a safe and healthy environment.
Defence of the Motherland, of the
independence and teritorial integrity of Ukraine and respect for the state's
symbols are the duty of citizens. Citizens of Ukraine perform military services
in compliance with the law. No person may damage the environment, cultural
heritage. Every person shall pay taxes and duties in the order and amount
determined by law.
The Constitution outlines the structure of
the national government and specifies its powers and duties. Under the
Constitution the powers of the goverment are divided into three branches — the
legislative which consists of the Verkhovna Rada, the executive, headed by the
President, and the judicial, which is led by the Supreme Court.
The parliament — the Verkhovna Rada is the
only body of the legislative power in Ukraine.
There are 450 people's deputies who are
elected for a term of four years on the basis of universal, equal and direct
suffrage by secret ballot.
The Verkhovna Rada's main function is making
laws. Law drafting work is performed by its Committees.
The Verkhovna Rada adopts the State Budget
for the period from January 1
to December 31 and controls the execution of it. The monetary unit of Ukraine is the
The President of Ukraine is the head of the
state and speaks on behalf of it. He is elected directly by the voters for a
term of five years with no more than two full terms.
The highest body of the executive power is the Cabinet of Ministers. It
is responsible to the President and is accountable to the Verkhovna Rada. It
carries out domestic and foreing policy of the State, the fulfilment of the
Constitution, as well as the acts of the President, develops and fulfils
national programme on the economic, scientific and technological, social and
cultural development of Ukraine.
Justice in Ukraine is exercised entirely by
courts. Ii is administered by the Constitutional Court and by courts of general
jurisdiction. The Supreme Court of Ukraine is the highest juridical body of
The Constitution defines the territorial
structure of Ukraine. It is composed of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, 24 regions, districts, cities, districts in cities, settlements and
villages. Cities of Kyiv and Sevastopol possess a special status determined by
The Constitution of Ukraine
consists of 15 chapters, 161 articles.
The day of its adoption is a state holiday — the Day of the Constitution of Ukraine.
governed by — керуючись
on behalf of — від
to adopt — приймати
to assure — гарантувати,
sovereign — суверенний
single citizenship — єдине
full development — всебічний
restriction — обмеження
gender — стать
ownership — майновий
to guarantee — гарантувати to specify — точно
legislative — законодавчий
executive — виконавчий
accountable — підзвітний
fulfil — здійснювати
exercise — здійснювати, виконувати
— орган, звід, кодекс
obligation — обов'язок
dwelling — житло
care — медична допомога
in compliance with — відповідно
taxes and duties — податки
outline — намічати, окреслювати
judicial — судовий
supreme Court — Верховний
— виборче право
drafting work — законопроектна робота
6 Answer the question.
1. When was the Constitution of Ukraine adopted?
2. What does the Constitution of Ukraine establish?
3. What is the state language of Ukraine?
4. What rights of the citizens does the Constitution of Ukraine
are the main branches of power according to the Constitution of Ukraine?
6. What are the main duties of the Verkhovna
7. What are the functions of the Cabinet of
many chapters and articles does the Constitution of Ukraine
9. How do the Ukrainian people celebrate the Day of the
Constitution of Ukraine?