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17.ЗАКОН УКРАЇНИ Про місцеве самоврядування в Україні


Unit 2. Constitution    
Exercise 1
Read, translate and retell the text.
 The Constitution of the USA

The Constitution of the USA was adopted after the War of Inde­pendence on September 17, 1787. It lists the set of rules, laws and regulations which provide the practical norms regulating the work of the government. The document embodied the political theories of the Founding Fathers, who represented the interests of a privileged class, as the great majority of those who formulated the Constitution were men of property. The main principle underlying the Constitution was as follows: private property is the backbone of liberty. It was put forward by a rich plantation owner from Virginia, James Madison, who is known to be the "Father of the Constitution" precisely for this reason. The Constitution consists of the Preamble and seven articles. Twenty-seven amendments have so far been added to its original text. The first 10 amendments, known as the Bill of Rights, were added in a group in 1791, as a result of growing popular demands. These amendments establish the individual rights and freedoms to all people of the States, including freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of worship, the right to peaceful assembly, etc. Some of the amendments are now rela lively unimportant, but the Fifth Amendment retains its significance in the fight of the American people for their civil rights. It provides that "no person shall deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law", and no person "shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself". All the amendments adopted by the Congress become an integral part of the Constitution. Mention should be made of some of them. The Thirteenth amendment abolished slavery. The fourteenth and Fifteenth adopted in 1868 and 1870 defined citizenship and gave the vote to all male citizens, regardless of race, colour or previous condition of servitude. The Nineteenth gave the vote to women and was adopted in 1920. The Twenty-second amendment, adopted in 1951, makes it impossible for any President to hold office for more than two terms. The 26th amendment was adopted in 1971, it lowered the voting age to 18 years. Americans feel that of all freedoms proclaimed in the Constitution there is only one freedom — freedom of enterprise. But freedom of enterprise does not at all expand personal freedoms of all citizens. On the contrary, it limits them. Freedom of enterpise in practice means freedom of the wealthy to profit at the expense of the working man.  

Word list

freedom of worship свобода віросповідання enterprise підприємство

previous condition of servitude попереднє перебування в рабстві

Exercise 2

Answer the questions.

1.  What three main branches is the federal goverment of the US divided into?

2.  Whose interests has the US Constitution reflected from the very beginning?

3.  What principle forms the basis of the Constitution?

4.  What freedoms are proclaimed by the Constitution? Which of them has become the most important?

5.  In what way has the original text of the Constitution been changed?


Exercise 3 Answer the questions.

1.   Whom does the executive power belong to in the USA?

2.   How long is the President elected for?

3.   Who can be elected the President?

4.   When does the term of office of the President begin?

5.   How are the presidential elections held?

6.   What are the great powers exercised by the President?

7.   Why does Vice-President tend to be the forgotten man of American politics?

8.   What is "the Cabinet"?

9.   Who appoints Cabinet members?


10.  How many members are there in the President's Cabinet today?

11.  What are the members of the "White House Office" responsible for?

Exercise 4

Read, translate and retell the text.It's interesting to know 

Inauguration always takes place at noon on January 20. It is an official act of installing the President of the United States in office. It is also the occasion for extensive ceremonies. Inauguration is connected with some traditions. Thus, the incumbent President is expected to give a dinner on the eve in honour of the President-Elect and in the morning of the same day to conduct him through the White House . By 12 o'clock on January 20 the participants of the ceremony and guests take their places on a rostrum especially erected in front of the Capitol. The central point of the ceremony is the taking of an oath by the President and the delivery of his inaugural speech. The wording of the President's oath is laid down in the Constitution and runs as follows: "I do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States". The President's Inauguration speech is regarded as a declaration of principles proclaimed by the new Administration. The ceremony ends in a military parade. The scope of the ceremony depends greatly on the tastes and wishes of the new President. It is known that John Kennedy invited large groups of intellectuals and prominent actors and singers. Exercise 5 Read, translate and retell the text.
THE CONSTITUTION OF UKRAINE Governed by the Act of Ukraine's Independence of August 24, 1991, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine on behalf of the Ukrainian people adopted the Constitution — the Fundamental Law on June 28, 1996. The Constitution established the country's political system, assures rights, freedoms and duties of citizens, and the basis of its laws. It asserts that Ukraine is a sovereign and independent, democratic, social, legal state .It is a unitarian state with single citizenship. Ukraine is a republic. The people are the only source of power which is exercised directly and through the bodies of state power and local self-government. The land, mineral raw materials, air space, water and other natural resources which are on the territory of Ukraine are objects of the property right of Ukrainian people. The state language in Ukraine is Ukrainian. The state symbols of Ukraine are the State Flag, the State Emblem and the State Anthem of Ukraine.
The State Flag is a blue and a yellow banner made from two equal horizontal stripes . The main element of the Great State Emblem of Ukraine is the Sign of the State of Prince, Volodymyr the Great (the Small State Emblem of Ukraine). The State Anthem of Ukraine is the national anthem with the music of M. Verbytsky. The capital of Ukraine is Kyiv. The Constitution states that every person has the right to the free development of his/her personality, and has obligations before society where free and full development of the personality is assured. Citizens have equal Constitutional rights and freedoms and are equal before the law. There are no privileges or restrictions based upon face, colour of skin, political and other beliefs gender, ethnic and social origin, properly, ownership, position, place of residence, language, religion. The articles of the Constitution guarantee the rights of life, personal inviolability and the inviolability of dwelling, noninteference in private and family life, free choice of residence, work, rest, education, social security, housing, health protection, medical care and medical insurance, legal assistance, a safe and healthy environment. Defence of the Motherland, of the independence and teritorial integrity of Ukraine and respect for the state's symbols are the duty of citizens. Citizens of Ukraine perform military services in compliance with the law. No person may damage the environment, cultural heritage. Every person shall pay taxes and duties in the order and amount determined by law. The Constitution outlines the structure of the national government and specifies its powers and duties. Under the Constitution the powers of the goverment are divided into three branches — the legislative which consists of the Verkhovna Rada, the executive, headed by the President, and the judicial, which is led by the Supreme Court. The parliament — the Verkhovna Rada is the only body of the legislative power in Ukraine. There are 450 people's deputies who are elected for a term of four years on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. The Verkhovna Rada's main function is making laws. Law drafting work is performed by its Committees. The Verkhovna Rada adopts the State Budget for the period from January 1 to December 31 and controls the execution of it. The monetary unit of Ukraine is the Hryvnia. The President of Ukraine is the head of the state and speaks on behalf of it. He is elected directly by the voters for a term of five years with no more than two full terms. The highest body of the executive power is the Cabinet of Ministers. It is responsible to the President and is accountable to the Verkhovna Rada. It carries out domestic and foreing policy of the State, the fulfilment of the Constitution, as well as the acts of the President, develops and fulfils national programme on the economic, scientific and technological, social and cultural development of Ukraine. Justice in Ukraine is exercised entirely by courts. Ii is administered by the Constitutional Court and by courts of general jurisdiction. The Supreme Court of Ukraine is the highest juridical body of general jurisdiction. The Constitution defines the territorial structure of Ukraine. It is composed of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, 24 regions, districts, cities, districts in cities, settlements and villages. Cities of Kyiv and Sevastopol possess a special status determined by law. The Constitution of Ukraine consists of 15 chapters, 161 articles. The day of its adoption is a state holiday — the Day of the Constitution of Ukraine.

Word list

governed by керуючись

on behalf of від імені

to adopt приймати

to assure гарантувати, забезпечувати

sovereign суверенний

single citizenship єдине громадянство

full development всебічний розвиток

restriction обмеження

gender стать

origin походження

ownership майновий стан

to guarantee гарантувати to specify точно визначати

branch гілка

legislative законодавчий

executive виконавчий

accountable підзвітний

to fulfil здійснювати

to exercise здійснювати, виконувати

body орган, звід, кодекс

anthem гімн

banner прапор

stripe смуга

obligation обов'язок

inviolability недоторканність

dwelling житло

medical care медична допомога

insurance страхування

in compliance with відповідно до

taxes and duties податки і збори

to outline намічати, окреслювати

judicial судовий

supreme Court Верховний Суд

suffrage виборче право

law drafting work законопроектна робота

voter виборець

Exercise 6 Answer the question.

1. When was the Constitution of Ukraine adopted?

2. What does the Constitution of Ukraine establish?

3. What is the state language of Ukraine?

4. What rights of the citizens does the Constitution of Ukraine

5.   What are the main branches of power according to the Constitution of Ukraine?

6.  What are the main duties of the Verkhovna Rada?

7.  What are the functions of the Cabinet of Ministers?

8. How many chapters and articles does the Constitution of Ukraine
consist of?

9. How do the Ukrainian people celebrate the Day of the
Constitution of Ukraine?

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