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1.ПРИНЦИПИ І МЕТОДИ ДІЯЛЬНОСТІ ОРГАНІВ МІСЦЕВОГО САМОВРЯДУВАННЯ

2.НОТАРІАТ В УКРАЇНІ

3.КОНСТИТУЦІЙНЕ ПРАВО УКРАЇНИ

4.КРИМІНАЛІСТИКА

5.ИСТОРИЯ ПОЛИТИЧЕСКИХ И ПРАВОВЫХ УЧЕНИЙ

6."МАЛА" СУДОВА РЕФОРМА В УКРАЇНІ

7.ОБЩАЯ И КРИМИНАЛЬНАЯ СЕКСОЛОГИЯ

8.ЮРИДИЧНА ДЕОНТОЛОГІЯ

9.АНГЛІЙСЬКА МОВА ДЛЯ ЮРИСТІВ ENGLISH FOR LAW STUDENTS

10.СЛОВНИЧОК ЮРИДИЧНИХ ТЕРМІНІВ

11.КРИМІНОЛОГІЯ

12.ЖИТЛОВЕ ПРАВО УКРАЇНИ

13.СУДОВА РЕФОРМА В УКРАЇНІ: СТАН І ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ

14.ТЕОРІЯ ДЕРЖАВИ І ПРАВА

15.ЮРИДИЧНА ДЕОНТОЛОГІЯ

16.МІЖНАРОДНЕ ПРИВАТНЕ ПРАВО

17.ЗАКОН УКРАЇНИ Про місцеве самоврядування в Україні

18.ТРУДОВІ СПОРИ

Unit 3.
Parties and Electoral system  
Elections in Great Britain
What is the general election? The general election means that the electors in the country cast their vote for the candidate from the political party of their choice to be the Member of Parliament for the con­stituency. The political party which wins the most seats in the House of Commons forms the Government. This is different from by election which occurs when a Member dies, retires or is disqualified, and voting takes place only in the constituency without a Member, not throughout the country. Fair and free elections are an essential part of democracy allowing the majority of citizens to determine how they want the country to be governed. The results of the last general election in the United Kingdom were: 1

May 1997

Labour (including Speaker)          419

Conservative                  165

Liberal Democrats              46

Ulster Unionist Party             10

Scottish National Party                 6

Plaid Cymru (the Welsh National Party)          4

Social Democratic and Labour Party            3

Democratic Unionist Party                        2

Sinn Fein (the Catholic Northern Irish Party)         2

United Kingdom Unionist         1

Independent                      1

Total                               659

Labour majority                177

Turnout                      71,5%

Female MPs elected          120

What is a constituency? The United Kingdom is divided into areas which are known as constituencies. You live in a constituency and will register to vote there. You have one vote which you cast for the person who you wish to represent you in the Parliament. Through this you also vote for the party which you wish to be in the Government. There are 659 constituencies in the United Kingdom. How often are there general elections? The time between general elections is 5 years. There were 8 years between elections at the time of the First World War and 10 years at the time of the Second World War. About the month before the election the Prime Minister meets a small group of close advisers to discuss the date which would best suit the party. The date is announced to the Cabinet. The Prime Minister formally asks the Sovereign to dissolve the Parliament. General elections are usually held 17 days after the dissolution of the Parliament. Thursdays are popular general election days. General elections are often held in either spring or autumn. What happens on polling day? Each constituency is divided into a number of polling districts, each of which has a polling station. Most polling stations are in public buildings such as schools, town halls or council offices. Voting takes place on election day from 07.00 till 22.00 in each constituency. Voters are sent a polling card in advance. Voting is by secret ballot, and the only people allowed in the polling station are the presiding officer, the polling clerks, the duty police officer, the candidates, their election agents and the voters. Just before the poll opens, the presiding officer shows the ballot boxes to those at the polling station to prove that they are empty. The boxes are then locked and sealed. Voting takes place in a booth. The voter marks the ballot paper with a cross in the box opposite the name of the candidate of his or her choice and folds the paper to conceal the vote before placing it in the ballot box. The results from each constituency are announced as soon as the votes have been counted, usually the same night. The national result is known by the next morning. What happens when all of the results are known? When all of the results are known, the Queen will usually invite the leader of the party winning the most seats in the House of Commons to be Prime Minister and to form a Government. The Prime Minister will appoint approximately 100 of his MPs to become Cabinet or more junior ministers to form the Government. The second largest party becomes the Official Opposition with a small group of its MPs being chosen to form the Shadow Cabinet. Its leader is known as the Leader of the Opposition. A date will then be announced for the State Opening of Parliament, when the Monarch will officially open the new Parliament. The House of Lords is unelected Chamber so is not involved in the electoral process. It closes when the Parliament dissolves and reassem­bles for the State Opening of Parliament.

Word list

an elector виборець choice вибір

by-election додаткові вибори to retire йти у відставку voting голосування a citizen громадянин

to represent представляти, бути представником

an adviser радник, консультант

to dissolve розпускати (парламент)

polling day день голосування

poll голосування

a ballot box виборча урна

a booth кабіна для голосування

a voter виборець

to conceal приховувати

to appoint призначати

Shadow Cabinet тіньовий кабінет (склад кабінету міністрів, що призначається лідерами опозиції)

to cast one's vote подавати голос

Exercise 1

Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.

Exercise 2

Fill in the blanks.

1.  In the United Kingdom general elections are held every years.

2.  The country is divided into 659.

3.  The political party which wins the most seats in the ... forms the Government.

4.  By-elections are held when an ... dies or retires.

5.  A Member of Parliament is elected ... each area.

6.  Local ... are set up in schools and halls.

7.  Voting takes place throughout ... day.

8.  In the polling ... the voter marks a cross by one name, then puts the paper into the ... box.

9.  Voting takes place on Polling Day, usually ... .

 

10.  When all of the results are known the Queen will usually invite the leader of the party winning the most seats in the House of Commons to be ... and to form ... .

11.  The second largest party becomes the ... .

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