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1.ПРИНЦИПИ І МЕТОДИ ДІЯЛЬНОСТІ ОРГАНІВ МІСЦЕВОГО САМОВРЯДУВАННЯ

2.НОТАРІАТ В УКРАЇНІ

3.КОНСТИТУЦІЙНЕ ПРАВО УКРАЇНИ

4.КРИМІНАЛІСТИКА

5.ИСТОРИЯ ПОЛИТИЧЕСКИХ И ПРАВОВЫХ УЧЕНИЙ

6."МАЛА" СУДОВА РЕФОРМА В УКРАЇНІ

7.ОБЩАЯ И КРИМИНАЛЬНАЯ СЕКСОЛОГИЯ

8.ЮРИДИЧНА ДЕОНТОЛОГІЯ

9.АНГЛІЙСЬКА МОВА ДЛЯ ЮРИСТІВ ENGLISH FOR LAW STUDENTS

10.СЛОВНИЧОК ЮРИДИЧНИХ ТЕРМІНІВ

11.КРИМІНОЛОГІЯ

12.ЖИТЛОВЕ ПРАВО УКРАЇНИ

13.СУДОВА РЕФОРМА В УКРАЇНІ: СТАН І ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ

14.ТЕОРІЯ ДЕРЖАВИ І ПРАВА

15.ЮРИДИЧНА ДЕОНТОЛОГІЯ

16.МІЖНАРОДНЕ ПРИВАТНЕ ПРАВО

17.ЗАКОН УКРАЇНИ Про місцеве самоврядування в Україні

18.ТРУДОВІ СПОРИ

Unit 8. Law Enforcement  

Law Enforcement in Great Britian

The Country. England, Wales and Northern Ireland are parts of the United Kingdom, a group of islands situated on the west coast of mainland Europe to the north of France and separated from Belgium, the Netherlands and the Nordic countries by the North Sea. Scotland has an area of 78,750 square kilometres and a population of 4,9 million. It is in the northern part of the main island and has a police organisation similar to that of England and Wales, but a different legal system. In area England, Wales and Northern Ireland total are some 165,000 square kilometres and have a population of about 52 million. Eighty per cent of the population lives in urban areas, London alone has a population of over 8 million. There are 43 police forces in England and Wales with a total strength of 129,000 police officers. The police / population ratio is 1:448. The Metropolitan Police is responsible for the Greater London Area and is the largest police force with more than 28,000 officers. The Royal Ulster Constabulary is responsible for Northern Ireland and has over 11,500 regular police officers. Additionally in England and Wales there are more than 53,000 civilian support staff employed by police forces together with some 4,500 traffic wardens. Control of police forces is based upon atripartite relationship be­tween central government, the local Police Authority and the chief officer of police. Police officers are not employees of the state or of local government. At the same time, like any other citizen, they are answerable to both the ordinary criminal and civil law, as well as to the police disciplinary procedures. The Home Secretary. The Home Secretary has responsibility to promote and maintain the effectiveness of police forces and has a range of powers. An important power is to determine annually the key operational objectives for police forces. These are published after consultation with representatives of both police authorities and chief officers of police. The functions of the Home Secretary include all training at recruit training centres, senior officer training at regional centres and the National Staff College at Bramshill; the Police National Computer; the National Criminal Intelligence Service; and central research and planning units. Her Majesty's Inspectors of Constabulary. A number of inspectors known as "Her Majesty's Inspectors of Constabulary" (HMIC) assist the Home Secretary in the maintenance of efficiency and effectiveness. Currently there are seven such appointments together with Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Constabulary (HMCIC). The police forces are divided into five regions for inspectorate purposes and one of the HMIC's has specific responsibility for forces in a region. Inspections take the form of an annual performance review of each force with a full examination of the organisation and activity every three years. Her Majesty's Inspectors are particularly concerned with force strategic issues, quality of service, equal opportunities, the structure and the management and organisation of crime investigation. All inspection reports are published publicly. The Police Authority. The Police Authority has a range of duties and responsibilities. It must secure the maintenance of an efficient and effective police force for its area. It must determine local policing objectives set by the Home Secretary. Before the beginning of each financial year the Authority must issue a plan setting out the proposed arrangements for policing the authority's area during the coming year ("the local policing plan"). At the end of each financial year the Police Authority must issue a report on the year's policing. The Police Authority appoints the chief officers and is the disciplinary authority for those ranks. The Chief Constable. The Chief Constable is responsible for the direction and control of the police force. The Chief Constable is the disciplinary authority for all ranks up to and including the superintending ranks. Note: In the Metropolitan Police Service and the City of London Police, the term Chief Constable is not used. The most senior police officer in each of those two forces is titled Commissioner. Word list legal — юридичний, правовий, законний civilian — цивільний; громадянський support — підтримка support staff — допоміжний склад traffic warden — службовець дорожньої охорони authority — влада criminal law — кримінальне право to promote — сприяти, підвищувати в чині або у званні to maintain — підтримувати objective — мета (syn.: aim, goal, purpose, target) recruit — рекрут, новобранець the National Criminal Intelligence Service — Національна служба кримінальної розвідки appointment — призначення (на посаду) duty — обов'язок to secure — охороняти, забезпечувати rank — звання Exercise 1 Fill in the blanks. 1.   England, Wales and Northern Ireland are parts of the ... . 2.   Scotland has a ... similar to that of England and Wales but a different           3.   There are 43........... in England and Wales with a total strength of 129,000 ......... 4.  There are more than 53,000 civilian.................. employed by police forces. 5.   There are 4,500 .......... in the police forces of England and Wales. 6.   Police officers are answerable to the ... and ... law. 7.   The Home Secretary has responsibility to ... and ... the effectiveness of police forces. 8.   The Home Secretary has a power to determine annually the key operational ... for the police forces. 9.   The functions of the Home Secretary include all training at ... training centres.   10.  The duties and responsibilities of the Police Authority are to ... the maintenance of an efficient and effective police force for its area. 11.  The Police Authority .. . the chief officers and is the disciplinary authority for those ... . Exercise 2 Read the following sentences and decide if they are true or false. 1. England, Wales and Northern Ireland are a group of islands situated on the east coast of mainland Europe. 2.   Scotland has a police organisation and a legal system similar to those of England and Wales. 3.   The Metropolitan Police is the largest police force with more than 28,000 officers. 4.   There are more than 53,000 civilian support staff with some 4,500 traffic wardens. 5.   Police officers are employees of the state and of local government. 6.   Police officers are answerable only to the civil law. 7.   The Home Secretary has responsibility to promote and maintain the efficiency and effectiveness of police forces. 8.   The functions of the Home Secretary are all training at recruit training centres, supervisory and senior officer training, the Police National Computer; the National Criminal Intelligence Service, etc. 9.   The police forces are divided into ten regions for inspectorate purposes.   10.  The duty of the Police Authority is to secure the maintenance of an efficient and effective police force for its area. 11.  The Police Authority appoints the junior officers. 12.  The Chief Constable is responsible for the direction and control of the police force. 13.  The Chief Constable is the disciplinary authority for chief officers only. 14.  The most senior police officer in the Metropolitan Police Service and the City of London Police is the Chief Constable. Exercise 3 Find words and expressions in the text which mean: 1.  power or right to give orders and make others obey; 2.  a new member of a society, group, etc, especially a soldier in the early days of his training; 3.  distinct grade in the armed forces; 4.  help to organize and start, give smb. a higher position or rank; 5.  person not serving with the armed forces; 6.  to keep up, support; 7.  position. Exercise 4 Ask questions to get the following answers. 1.  England, Wales and Northern Ireland are parts of the United Kingdom, a group of islands situated on the west coast of mainland Europe. 2.  Scotland has a police organisation similar to that of England and Wales, but a different legal system. 3.  There are 43 police forces in England and Wales with a total strength of 129,000 police officers. 4.  The police / population ratio is 1:448. 5.  The Metropolitan Police is the largest police force. 6.  Police officers are not employees of the state or of local govern­ment. 7.  The Home Secretary has responsibility to promote and maintain the efficiency and effectiveness of police forces. 8.  The Home Secretary determines annually the key operational objectives for the police forces. 6. The functions of the Home Secretary include all training at recruit training centres. 10.  Inspections take place every three years. 11.  Her Majesty's Inspectors examine quality of service, equal opportunities, the structure and management and organisation of crime investigations. 12.  The Police Authority must determine local policing objectives. 13.  The Police Authority appoints the chief officers and is the disci­plinary authority for those ranks. 14.  The Chief Constable is responsible for the direction and control of the police force. Exercise 5 Answer the following questions. 1.  What is the geographical position of England, Wales and Northern Ireland? 2.  Is the police organisation of Scotland similar to that of England and Wales? 3.  How many police forces are there in England and Wales? 4.  What is the police / population ratio? 5.  What is the largest police force? 6.  Are police officers employees of the state?   7.  What responsibility does the Home Secretary have? 8.  What are the functions of the Home Secretary? 9.  What are the duties of Her Majesty's Inspectors? 10. What responsibilities does the Police Authority have? 11 . Who is the disciplinary authority for all ranks? Exercise 6 Complete the following text by translating the words and expressions in brackets. Britain has no national police force. Instead there is a separate (по­ліцейське управління) for each of 43 areas into which the country is divided. Each has a police (влада) — a commitee of local county councillors and magistrates. The forces cooperate with each other, but it is unusual for members of one force to operate in another's area unless they are asked to give assistance. This sometimes happens when there has been a very serious (злочин). For historical reasons the (Міністр закор­донних справ) is responsible for London's Metropolitan Police Force. (Королівська Ольстерська поліція) is responsible for Northern Ireland. As in the army, there are a number of (звань): after the Chief Constable comes the Assistant Chief Constable, Chief Superintendent, Chief Inspector, Inspector, Sergeant and Constable. The police are helped by a number of Special Constables — members of the (громадськості) who work for the police voluntarily for a few hours a week. Exercise 7 Read, translate and discuss the text. THE ORGANISATION OF POLICE FORCES The British Police The British police officer is a well-known figure to anyone who has visited Britain or who has seen British films. Policemen are to be seen in towns and cities keeping law and order, either walking in pairs down the streets ("walking the beat") or driving specially marked police cars. Once known as "panda cars" because of their distinctive markings, these are now often jokingly referred to as "jam sandwiches" because of the pink fluorescent stripe running horizontally around the bodywork. In the past policemen were often known as "bobbies" after Sir Robert Peel, the founder of the police force. Nowadays Common nicknames include "the cops", "the fuzz", "the pigs", and "the Old Bill" (particularly in London). Few people realise, however, that the police in Britain are organised very differently from many other countries. 82 Most countries, for example, have a national police force which is controlled by central Government Britain has no national police force, although police policy is governed by the central Government's Home Office. Instead, there is a separate police force for each of 52 areas into which the country is divided. Each has a police authority — a committee of local county councillors and magistrates. The forces co-operate with each other, but it is unusual for members of one force to operate in another's area unless they are asked to give assistance. This sometimes happens when there has been a very serious crime. A Chief Constable (the most senior police officer of a force) may sometimes ask for the assistance of London's police force, based on New Scotland Yard — known simply as "the Yard". In most countries the police carry guns. In Britain, however, this is extremely unusual. Policemen do not, as a rule, carry firearms in their day-to-day work, though certain specialist units are trained to do so and can be called upon to help the regular police force in situations where firearms are involved, e.g. terrorist incidents, armed robberies, etc. The only policemen who routinely carry weapons are those assigned to guard politicians and diplomats, or special officers who patrol airports. In certain circumstances specially trained police officers can be armed, but only with the signed permission of a magistrate. All members of the police must have gained a certain level of academic qualifications at school and undergone a period of intensive training. Like in the army, there are a number of ranks: after the Chief Constable comes the Assistant Chief Constable, Chief Superintendent, Chief Inspector, Inspector, Sergeant and Constable. Women make up about 10 per cent of the police force. The police are helped by a number of Special Constables — members of the public who work for the police voluntarily for a few hours a week. Each police force has its own Criminal Investigation Department (CID). Members of CIDs are detectives, and they do not wear uniforms. The other uniformed people you see in British towns are traffic wardens. Their job is to make sure that drivers obey the parking regulations. They have no other powers — it is the police who are responsible for controlling offences like speeding, careless driving and drunken driving. The duties of the police are varied, ranging from assisting at accidents to safeguarding public order and dealing with lost property. One of their main functions is, of course, apprehending criminals and would be criminals. Exercise 8 Answer the following questions. 1.  Who was the founder of the British police? 2.  What does "walking the beat" mean? 3.  Why are British police cars called "jam sandwich" cars in colloquial speech? 4.  Is there a single police force organised by central government? 5.  What is the major difference in police organisation between Britain and some other countries? 6.  When do British police forces cooperate with each other? 7.  What is the name of London's police headquarters? 8.  In what situations can policemen carry arms? 9.  What are the ranks of policemen?   10.  What is the job of CID officers? 11.  What are the duties of traffic wardens? Exercise 9 Read the text and fill in the gaps with the appropriate words and expressions from the previous text. In Britain different areas have different____________________ . For instance, the Metropolitan police operate in London, but there are different police forces in the counties outside London. The top man in each police force is______________ . He is appointed by the local Watch Committee which is a________________ of the local government. The Watch Committee can dismiss him too, if the central government agrees. The Chief Constable appoints all the__________ below him in his force. Things are slightly different in London. The top man is known as the Metropolitan Police Commissioner and his appointment is arranged through the central government. British police are normally not_________ . In special cases, when their work becomes dangerous, they can be given____________ however. As is well known, the________ of the British policeman is blue, with a tall helmet. These days, though, you can see a different uniform in the streets. This is the uniform with the yellow hatband worn by_____________ . Their job is simply to control traffic and___________ . The most famous name connected with the British police is__________ . It is the headquarters of the London police force. Besides dealing with local police matters, the London police also help all over England and Wales with difficult crimes. They do this at the request of the local police.
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