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17.ЗАКОН УКРАЇНИ Про місцеве самоврядування в Україні


Unit 11. Imprisonment  
Exercise 1 Read, translate and retell the dialogue. IN PRISON Tim: Well, tomorrow we're going to leave this place! Fred: Yes. What are you going to do? Tim: Well, first I'm going to rent a big car, meet my girlfriend, and take her to an expensive restaurant. We're going to have lobster and champagne. What about you, Fred? Fred: My wife's going to meet me outside the prison. Then we're going to visit her mother. Tim: Your mother-in-law? You're kidding! Fred: No, I'm not. I'm going to work for my wife's mother. Tim: Really? You're not going to work for your mother-in-law. Fred: Well, she has a little hamburger place in Chicago. Tim: What are you going to do there? Fred: I'm going to be a dishwasher. Tim: What? Wash dishes? Well, I'm not going to work. I'm going to have a good time! Fred: You're lucky. I'm going to rob a bank next week. Tim: Are you crazy? Fred: Because I'm happy in prison!  
Exercise 2 Read the following text and write down Ukrainian equivalents for the words and expressions given in bold type. DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRISON SYSTEM A prison is the institution for the confinement of persons convicted of major crimes or felonies. In the 19th and the 20th centuries imprisonment replaced corporal punishment, execution, and banishments the chief means of punishing serious offenders. Historically exile, execution, and various forms of corporal punishment were the most common penalties for criminal acts. In the 12th century England jails were widely used as places for the confinement of accused persons until their cases could be tried by the king's court. Imprisonment gradually came to be accepted not only as a device for holding persons awaiting trial, but also as a means of punishing convicted criminals. During the 16th century a number of houses of correction were established in England and on the continent for the reform of minor offenders. In these institutions there was little segregation by age, sex, or other condition .The main emphasis was on strict discipline and hard labour. Although reformation of offenders was intended in the houses of correction, the unsanitary conditions and lack of provisions for the welfare of the inmates soon produced widespread agitation for further changes in methods of handling criminals. Solitary confinement of criminals became an ideal among the rationalist reformers of the 18th century, who believed that solitude would help the offender to become penitent and that penitence would result in reformation. Meanwhile, strenuous opposition to the prolonged isolation of prisoners developed very early, especially in the United States. A competing philosophy of prison management, known as the "silent system" was developed. The main distinguishing feature of the silent system was that prisoners were allowed to work together in the daytime. Silence was strictly enforced at all times, however, and at night the prisoners were confined in individual cells. Further refinements were developed in Irish prisons in the mid-1800s. Irish inmates progressed through three stages of confinement before they were returned to civilian life. The first portion of the sentence was served in isolation. Then the prisoners were allowed to associate with other inmates in various kinds of work projects. Finally, for six months or more before release, the prisoners were transferred to "intermediate prisons", where inmates were supervised by unarmed guards and given sufficient freedom and responsibility to permit them to demonstrate their fitness for release. Release was also conditional upon the continued good conduct of the offender, who could be returned to prison if necessary. These were the steps made to fit the severity of the punishment to the severity of the crime, in the belief that the existence of clearly articulated and just penalties would act as a deterrent to crime. Since then, deterrence, rather than retribution has become a leading principle of European penology.  
Exercise 3 Answer the following questions.  
1. What is a prison?  
2.  What were the means of punishing offenders before the 19th century?
3.  What was the purpose of jails in the 12th century in England?  
4.  What were the main features of houses of correction in the 16th century?
5.  Why did the rationalist reformers of the 18th century seek to establish solitary confinement of criminals?
6.  What is the "silent system"?  
7.  What were Irish prisons like in the mid-1800s?
Exercise 4 Read the text below and answer the following questions.  
1.  What are the purposes of incarceration?
2.  How are these purposes obtained?
3.  What three categories of prisons are described in the text?
4 What is the general principle of confining offenders into different kinds of prisons? PRESENT-DAY PENAL INSTITUTIONS Modern prisons are quite diverse, but it is possible to make some generalisations about them. In all but minimum-security prisons, the task of maintaining physical custody of the prisoners is usually given the highest priority and is likely to dominate all other concerns. Barred cells and locked doors, periodic checking of cells, searches for contraband, and detailed regulation of inmates' movements about the prison are all undertaken to prevent escapes. In order to forestall thievery, drug and alcohol use, violent assaults, rapes, and other types of prison crime, the inmates are subjected to rules governing every aspect of life; these do much to give the social structure of the prison its authoritarian character. The need to maintain security within prisons has prompted many countries to separate their penal institutions into categories of maximum, medium and minimum security. Convicted offenders are assigned to a particular category on the basis of the seriousness or violent nature of their offence, the length of their sentence, their proneness escape, and other considerations. Within a prison, the inmates are often classified into several categories and housed in corresponding cellblocks according to the security risk posed by each individual. Younger offenders are usually held in separate penal institutions that provide a stronger emphasis on treatment and correction.   Prisons generally succeed in the twin purposes of isolating the criminal from society and punishing him for his crime, but the higher goal of rehabilitation is not as easily attained. An offender's time in prison is usually reduced as a reward for good behaviour and conscientious performance at work. The privilege of receiving visits from family members and friends from the outside world exists in almost all penal systems. Exercise 5 Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions.  
1.   Ув'язнений.  
2.   Напад з використанням насилля.
3.   Некаральний вплив і виправдання.
4.   Засуджений. 5.   Реабілітація особистості злочинця.
6.   Тюрма з максимальною ізоляцією ув'язнених.  
7.   Тюрма з мінімальною ізоляцією ув'язнених.
8.   Тюрма з середнім ступенем ізоляції ув'язнених.
Exercise 6 Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions. Make up sentences of your own:  
•       conscientious performance at work
•       proneness to escape  
•       security risk  
•       to forestall thievery  
•       to give smth. the highest priority
•       to maintain security within prisons
Exercise 7 Match the following English expressions with their Ukrainian equivalents.
1.   Breach of prison                                
a) "промислова" тюрма
2.   Closed prison                                     
b) той, хто втік з тюрми
3.   Industrial prison                                      
c) втекти з тюрми
4.   Open prison                        
d) винести вирок до тюремного ув'язення
5.   Prison bar                                   
e) відбувати покарання в тюрмі  
6.   Prison breaker                  
f) перевиховання або навчання ув'язнених
7.  Prison education                     
g) втеча з тюрми, втеча з-під варти 102  
8.  Prison lawyer  
9.  Prison term
10. Prison ward    
11. To be sent to prison
її) тюремна камера
і) тюремні грати _
І) тюремне ув'язнення, тюрем­ний термін
к) тюремний юрист  
12.  To do one's time (in prison) 
l) тюрма закритого типу  
13.  To escape from prison                  
m) тюрма відкритого типу (яка не охороняється) THE TOWER OF LONDON Founded nearly a millennium ago and expanded upon over the centuries since, the Tower of London has protected, housed, imprisoned and been for many the last sight they saw on the Earth. It has been the seat of British government and the living quarters of monarchs, the site of renowned political intrigue and the repository of the Crown Jewels. It has housed lions, bears, and (to this day) flightless ravens, not to mention notorious traitors and framed members of court, lords and ministers, clergymen and knights. In the Middle Ages the Tower of London became a prison and place of execution for politically related crimes, with most captives being put to death (murdered or executed). Among those killed there were the humanist Sir Thomas More (1535); the second wife of Henry VIII, Anne Boleyn (1536). Other notable inmates included Princess Elizabeth (later Elizabeth I), who was briefly imprisoned by Mary I for suspicion of conspiracy; the infamous conspirator Guy Fawkes (1606) and the adventurer Sir Walter Raleigh (1618). Even in the 20th century during World War I several spies were executed there by firing squad. Exercise 8 Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions.  
•       a framed member of court  
•       a notable inmate  
•       a notorious traitor
•       a politically related crime
•       an infamous conspirator
•       the repository of the Crown Jewels  
•       the seat of British government
•       the site of renowned political intrigue Exercise 9 Complete the following table with the appropriate verb or noun forms.
  Here are some of the unfortunates held within theTower walls. _____________ , the Lord Chancellor and scholar who served Henry VIII until the break with Rome, refused to acknowledge Henry VIII as supreme head of the English Church, and continued adamant when the king's subjects were required to subscribe to the oath imposed. He also protested against the divorce of Catherine of Aragon, who had given Henry only one living child, the PrincessMary. _____________ , Henry VIII's second wife, was taken to the Tower on a charge of adultery. Before her crowning she had stayed in what is now called the "Queen's House", built below the Bell Tower in 1530. As a prisoner she returned there. Her trial took place in the medieval great hall where she was sentenced to death. _____________ was Henry VIII fifth wife and according to him his "very jewel of womanhood". He adored her and showered her with gifts and favours and pampered her in every way. She appointed a former admirer as her private secretary and soon rumours were being whispered at court about the Queen's misconduc Henry's immediate reaction was one of total disbelief. However, he ordered an investigate and found that   she had really been flirting behind his back. For this he could show no mercy. She went the way of her cousin Anne Boleyn; she was tried, condemned and beheaded at the Tower ofLondon. ______________ was a leading conspirator in the Gunpowder Plot to blow up Parliament. He was a Catholic convert who had served in the Spanish army before becoming involved in the plot. He and his fellow conspirators were taken to the Tower and interrogated in the Queen's House. In January 1606 with three others, he was drawn on a hurdle from the Tower to the Houses of Parliament and there hanged, beheaded and quartered. _____________ was an explorer known for his expeditions to the Americas, and for allegedly bringing tobacco and the potato from the New World to the British Isles. A favourite of Elizabeth I, he fell thoroughly out of favour and spent 12 years in the Tower.
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