Unit 11. Imprisonment
Read, translate and retell
Tim: Well, tomorrow we're going to leave this
place! Fred: Yes. What are you going to do?
Well, first I'm going to rent a big car, meet my girlfriend, and take her to an
expensive restaurant. We're going to have lobster and champagne. What about
Fred: My wife's going to meet me outside the
prison. Then we're going to visit her mother.
Tim: Your mother-in-law? You're kidding!
Fred: No, I'm not. I'm going to work for my
Tim: Really? You're not going to work for
Fred: Well, she has a little hamburger place
Tim: What are you going to do there?
Fred: I'm going to be a dishwasher.
Tim: What? Wash dishes? Well, I'm not going
to work. I'm going
have a good time! Fred: You're lucky. I'm going to rob a bank next week. Tim:
Are you crazy? Fred: Because I'm happy in prison!
the following text and write down Ukrainian equivalents for the words and
expressions given in bold type.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRISON SYSTEM
A prison is the institution for the confinement of persons convicted of major
crimes or felonies. In the 19th and the 20th centuries imprisonment replaced
corporal punishment, execution, and banishments the chief means of punishing serious offenders.
exile, execution, and various forms of corporal punishment were the most common
penalties for criminal acts.
the 12th century England jails were widely used as places for the confinement of accused persons until their cases could be tried by the king's court.
came to be accepted not only as a device for holding persons awaiting trial, but also as a means of punishing convicted criminals.
the 16th century a number of houses of correction were established
in England and on the continent for the reform of minor offenders. In these institutions there was little segregation by age, sex, or other condition .The main
emphasis was on strict discipline and hard labour.
reformation of offenders was intended in the houses of correction, the
unsanitary conditions and lack of provisions for the welfare of the inmates soon produced widespread agitation for
further changes in methods of handling criminals. Solitary confinement of criminals became an ideal among the
rationalist reformers of the 18th century, who believed that
solitude would help the offender to become penitent and that penitence would result in reformation.
strenuous opposition to the prolonged isolation of prisoners developed very early, especially in the United States. A competing
philosophy of prison management, known as the "silent system" was developed. The main distinguishing
feature of the silent system was that prisoners were allowed to work together
in the daytime. Silence was strictly enforced at all times, however, and at
night the prisoners were confined in individual cells.
refinements were developed in Irish prisons in the mid-1800s. Irish inmates
progressed through three stages of confinement before they were returned to
civilian life. The first portion of the sentence was served in isolation. Then the prisoners were allowed to associate
with other inmates in various kinds of work projects. Finally, for six months
or more before release, the prisoners were transferred to "intermediate
prisons", where inmates were supervised by unarmed guards and given
sufficient freedom and responsibility to permit them to demonstrate their
fitness for release. Release was also conditional upon the continued good
conduct of the offender, who could be returned to prison if necessary.
were the steps made to fit the severity of the punishment to the severity of the crime, in the belief that the existence of clearly articulated and just penalties would act as a deterrent to crime. Since
then, deterrence, rather than retribution has become a leading
principle of European penology.
the following questions.
1. What is a prison?
2. What were the means of punishing offenders
before the 19th century?
3. What was the purpose of jails in the 12th
century in England?
4. What were the main features of houses of
correction in the 16th century?
5. Why did the rationalist reformers of the 18th
century seek to establish solitary confinement of criminals?
6. What is the "silent system"?
7. What were Irish prisons like in the
Read the text below and answer the following
1. What are the purposes of incarceration?
2. How are these purposes obtained?
3. What three categories of prisons are
described in the text?
4 What is the general
principle of confining offenders into different kinds of prisons?
PRESENT-DAY PENAL INSTITUTIONS
Modern prisons are quite diverse, but it is
possible to make some generalisations about them. In all but minimum-security
prisons, the task of maintaining physical custody of the prisoners is usually
given the highest priority and is likely to dominate all other concerns. Barred
cells and locked doors, periodic checking of cells, searches for contraband,
and detailed regulation of inmates' movements about the prison are all
undertaken to prevent escapes. In order to forestall thievery, drug and alcohol
use, violent assaults, rapes, and other types of prison crime, the inmates are
subjected to rules governing every aspect of life; these do much to give the
social structure of the prison its authoritarian character.
need to maintain security within prisons has prompted many countries to
separate their penal institutions into categories of maximum, medium and
minimum security. Convicted offenders are assigned to a particular category on
the basis of the seriousness or violent nature of their offence, the length of
their sentence, their proneness escape, and other considerations. Within a
prison, the inmates are often classified into several categories and housed in
corresponding cellblocks according to the security risk posed by each
individual. Younger offenders are usually held in separate penal institutions
that provide a stronger emphasis on treatment and correction.
Prisons generally succeed
in the twin purposes of isolating the criminal from society and punishing him
for his crime, but the higher goal of rehabilitation is not as easily attained.
An offender's time in prison is usually reduced as a reward for good behaviour
and conscientious performance at work. The privilege of receiving visits from
family members and friends from the outside world exists in almost all penal
Find in the text above the English
equivalents for the following words and expressions.
2. Напад з використанням насилля.
3. Некаральний вплив і виправдання.
5. Реабілітація особистості злочинця.
6. Тюрма з максимальною ізоляцією ув'язнених.
7. Тюрма з мінімальною ізоляцією ув'язнених.
8. Тюрма з середнім ступенем ізоляції ув'язнених.
Explain the meaning of the following words
and expressions. Make up sentences of your own:
• conscientious performance at work
• proneness to escape
• security risk
• to forestall thievery
• to give smth. the highest priority
• to maintain security within prisons
the following English expressions with their Ukrainian equivalents.
1. Breach of prison
a) "промислова" тюрма
2. Closed prison
той, хто втік з тюрми
3. Industrial prison
c) втекти з тюрми
4. Open prison
винести вирок до тюремного
5. Prison bar
відбувати покарання в тюрмі
6. Prison breaker
або навчання ув'язнених
7. Prison education
втеча з тюрми, втеча з-під варти
8. Prison lawyer
9. Prison term
10. Prison ward
11. To be sent to prison
і) тюремні грати _
І) тюремне ув'язнення, тюремний термін
12. To do one's time (in prison)
13. To escape from prison
відкритого типу (яка
TOWER OF LONDON
Founded nearly a millennium ago and expanded
upon over the centuries since, the Tower of London has protected, housed,
imprisoned and been for many the last sight they saw on the Earth.
has been the seat of British government and the living quarters of monarchs,
the site of renowned political intrigue and the repository of the Crown Jewels.
It has housed lions, bears, and (to this day) flightless ravens, not to mention
notorious traitors and framed members of court, lords and ministers, clergymen
the Middle Ages the Tower of London became a prison and place of execution for
politically related crimes, with most captives being put to death (murdered or
executed). Among those killed there were the humanist Sir Thomas More (1535);
the second wife of Henry VIII, Anne Boleyn (1536). Other notable inmates
included Princess Elizabeth (later Elizabeth I), who was briefly imprisoned by
Mary I for suspicion of conspiracy; the infamous conspirator Guy Fawkes (1606)
and the adventurer Sir Walter Raleigh (1618). Even in the 20th
century during World War I several spies were executed there by firing squad.
Explain the meaning of the following words
• a framed member of court
• a notable inmate
• a notorious traitor
• a politically related crime
• an infamous conspirator
• the repository of the Crown Jewels
• the seat of British government
• the site of renowned political intrigue
Complete the following table with the
appropriate verb or noun forms.
are some of the unfortunates held within theTower walls.
_____________ , the Lord Chancellor and scholar who served
Henry VIII until the break with Rome, refused to acknowledge Henry VIII
as supreme head of the English Church, and continued adamant when the king's
subjects were required to subscribe to the oath imposed. He also protested
against the divorce of Catherine of Aragon, who had given Henry only one living
child, the PrincessMary.
_____________ , Henry VIII's second wife, was taken to the Tower
on a charge of adultery. Before her crowning she had stayed in what is
now called the "Queen's House", built below the Bell Tower in 1530.
As a prisoner she returned there. Her trial took place in the medieval great
hall where she was sentenced to death.
_____________ was Henry VIII fifth wife and according to him his
"very jewel of womanhood". He adored her and showered her with
gifts and favours and pampered her in every way. She appointed a former admirer
as her private secretary and soon rumours were being whispered at court about
the Queen's misconduc Henry's immediate reaction was one of total disbelief.
However, he ordered an investigate and found that
she had really been flirting behind his back.
For this he could show no mercy. She went the way of her cousin Anne Boleyn;
she was tried, condemned and beheaded at the Tower ofLondon.
______________ was a leading conspirator in the Gunpowder Plot
to blow up Parliament. He was a Catholic convert who had served in the
Spanish army before becoming involved in the plot. He and his fellow conspirators
were taken to the Tower and interrogated in the Queen's House. In January 1606
with three others, he was drawn on a hurdle from the Tower to the Houses of
Parliament and there hanged, beheaded and quartered.
_____________ was an explorer known for his expeditions to the
Americas, and for allegedly bringing tobacco and the potato from the New
World to the British Isles. A favourite of Elizabeth I, he fell thoroughly out
of favour and spent 12 years in the Tower.